Congenital Pediatric Orthopedic Diseases

Metatarsus Adductus

What is metatarsus adductus?

Metatarsus adductus, also known as metatarsus varus, is a common foot deformity noted at birth that causes the front half of the foot, or forefoot, to turn inward. Metatarsus adductus may also be referred to as "flexible" (the foot can be straightened to a degree by hand) or "nonflexible" (the foot cannot be straightened by hand).

Clubfoot

What is clubfoot?

Clubfoot, also known as talipes equinovarus, is a congenital (present at birth) foot deformity. It affects the bones, muscles, tendons, and blood vessels and can affect one or both feet. The foot is usually short and broad in appearance and the heel points downward while the front half of the foot (forefoot) turns inward. The heel cord (Achilles tendon) is tight. The heel can appear narrow and the muscles in the calf are smaller compared to a normal lower leg.
Clubfoot occurs in approximately 1 to 3 of every 1,000 births, with boys outnumbering girls 2 to 1. One or both feet may be affected.

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)

What is DDH?

Developmental dysplasia of the hip is a congenital (present at birth) condition of the hip joint. It occurs once in every 1,000 live births. The hip joint is created as a ball and socket joint. In DDH, the hip socket may be shallow, letting the "ball" of the long leg bone, also known as the femoral head, slip in and out of the socket. The "ball" may move partially or completely out of the hip socket.

Congenital Limb Defects

What are congenital limb defects?

Congenital limb defects occur when a portion or the entire upper or lower limb fails to form normally or does not form when the baby is developing in the uterus.

Congenital Limb Defects

What are congenital limb defects?

Congenital limb defects occur when a portion or the entire upper or lower limb fails to form normally or does not form when the baby is developing in the uterus.

Muscular Dystrophy

What is muscular dystrophy?

Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a broad term that describes a genetic (inherited) disorder of the muscles. Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time.

Other health problems commonly associated with muscular dystrophy include the following:

Heart problems

Scoliosis. A lateral, or sideways, curvature and rotation of the back bones (vertebrae), giving the appearance that the person is leaning to one side.

Obesity

The most common forms of muscular dystrophy are Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy. The two forms are very similar, but Becker muscular dystrophy is less severe than DMD. Girls are rarely affected by either of these two forms of muscular dystrophy.